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Glossary

 

Ai: Blending, harmony, joining, or union. Also, to concentrate or focus. (Japanese)

Aiki: United spirit. The spiritual principle of destroying an adversary's will to fight, or the physical act of dominating an adversary by harmonizing with his force and redirecting it. (Japanese)

Aikido: Modern jujitsu system derived from Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu. (Japanese)

Bushido: Literally "Way of the Warrior." A feudal code of Japanese warrior ethics evolved from Confucian thought. (Japanese)

Ch'an: The Chinese meditative sect of Mahayana Buddhism. (Chinese)

Chi : Vital energy or spirit. (Chinese)

Chung Do Kwan : Blue Wave School. Taekwondo (originally Tae Soo Do) system founded in 1941 by Won Kook Yi. (Korean)

Daito Ryu : Great Eastern School. A school of classical martial arts dating from the Heian period and passed down to the Takeda family. Source of the family of aiki-arts. (Japanese)

Do : A suffix meaning "way." (Japanese and Korean)

Dobok: A training uniform. (Korean)

Dojang: Training hall. (Korean)

Dojo : Literally "place of the way." A training hall. (Japanese)

Dhyana: The Indian meditative sect of Mahayana Buddhism. (Indian)

Gi: A training uniform. (Japanese)

Giri: Literally "right reason." A sense of obligation or duty. (Japanese)

Hakama: Pleated, skirt-like pants worn by practitioners of the classical Japanese martial arts and some traditional budo systems. (Japanese)

Hakko Ryu: Eighth-Light School. Jujutsu system developed by Ryubo Okuyama in 1941 from Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu. (Japanese)

Hanshi: A master instructor or the headmaster of a ryu. (Japanese)

Hantachi: Literally "half standing." A stance on one knee. Also, a training format in which one student is standing and the other kneeling. (Japanese)

Hara : Literally "belly." The center of the body where one's soul resides. (Japanese)

Hwarang-Do: The ethical code developed by warriors in the 6th century Korean kingdom of Silla. Also the name of a modern martial way founded by Joo Bang Lee. (Korean)

I: Mind. (Chinese)

In: The soft, female, dark, or negative principle of nature. (Japanese)

Jinja: A shrine. (Japanese)

Ju: Suppleness, flexibility, or yielding. (Japanese)

Judo : Yielding way. Modern budo and combative sport derived from jujutsu. Founded by Jigoro Kano in 1881. (Japanese)

Jujutsu: Art or technique. (Japanese)

Kami: A spirit as conceived in the Shinto religion. (Japanese)

Kamiza: Literally "spirit seat." A shelf on the front wall of a Japanese style training hall where a shrine often resides.

Karate : Empty hand. System of combat developed on Okinawa emphasizing striking. (Japanese)

Karate-Do: Modern budo form of karate. (Japanese)

Kata : A formal, prearranged exercise. (Japanese)

Katsu: Victory. (Japanese)

Kenjutsu: Sword art. Classical Japanese swordsmanship. (Japanese)

Ki : Spirit, breath, the life force. (Japanese and Korean)

Kiai: Focused or concentrated life force. Also a "spirit shout."

Koan: A riddle with no logical answer used in the Rinzai sect of Zen to confound the conscious mind and allow the aspirant to achieve spontaneous insight. (Japanese)

Kung Fu: Generic name (Mandarin) for a wide range of Chinese combative systems. The Cantonese term in "gung fu." (Chinese)

Kuzushi: To off-balance an opponent before executing a throw or some other technique. (Japanese)

Kyu : Class. A category of rank for ungraded students, those who haven't reached the "black belt" ranks.

Li : Strength. (Chinese)

Make: Defeat. (Japanese)

Meijin: A great master. (Japanese)

Menkyo: A license or certificate. (Japanese)

Ninja : Stealth. A feudal Japanese group of spies and assassins. (Japanese)

On: A debt, obligation, or favor. A burden. (Japanese)

Renshi: A trainer. A teaching certificate roughly equivalent to fourth or fifth dan. (Japanese)

Ronin: Literally "wave man." A masterless samurai. A rogue. (Japanese)

Ryo: A feudal monetary measure of gold. (Japanese)

Ryu : A style of an art. A school. (Japanese)

Sabum: A teacher. (Korean)

Samurai : Literally "one who serves." A warrior in feudal Japan. A member of the elite class in feudal Japan's four-caste (merchant, artisan, peasant, warrior) social order. (Japanese)

San: An honorific title meaning mister, miss, etc. (Japanese)

Sumo: A modern sport-version of sumai, a grappling art dating the 8th century. (Japanese)

Sun Tzu : Author of "The Art of War" over 2,000 years ago.

Taekwondo : Way of smashing with feet and fists. A modern martial way and combative sport emphasizing high kicking and body punching. Also spelled "tae kwon do" and "taekwon-do." (Korean)

Tai Chi Ch'uan : Soft, internal art usually practiced in slow, graceful forms. Modern versions used mostly to promote health. (Chinese)

Tai Otoshi: Leg drop. A commonly used judo throw. (Japanese)

Tanden: The body's center, two inches below the belly button. (Japanese)

Tang Soo Do: China hand way ("tang" referring to China's T'ang Dynasty). Modern martial way and combative sport emphasizing foot fighting and punching. Also spelled "tang su do." (Korean)

Tao : The Way. (Chinese)

Tao Te Ching : The Way of Changes, a Chinese classic written by Lao Tzu around the 3rd century B.C. It is the fundamental text of Taoism. (Chinese)

Te: Hand. Old name for striking arts on Okinawa. (Japanese)

Tensho: Okinawan karate kata employing dynamic tension and sanchin stance. (Japanese)

Tori: Defender; Nage. The person who applies the technique. (Japanese)

Uechi Ryu: Internal system of Okinawan karate founded by Uechi Kanbun (1877-1948) after he returned from studying kung fu in China. (Japanese)

Wa: The classical concept of nonresistance or fusion. (Japanese)

Yakuza: The Japanese mafia. (Japanese)

Yamate Ryu: Mountain-Hand School. School of aikijujutsu. Originally Yamanote Ryu, or "Hand-of-the-Mountain School." (Japanese)

Yang : The hard, male, light, or positive principle of nature. (Chinese)

Yin : The soft, female, dark, or negative principle of nature. (Chinese)

Yo : The hard, male, light, or positive principle of nature. (Japanese)

Zen: The Japanese meditative sect of Mahayana Buddhism. (Japanese)